“Europe’s vulnerabilities to US secondary sanctions result mostly from its economic interdependence with the US. Political scientists Henry Farrell and Abraham Newman challenge the argument that globalisation results in reciprocal dependence, which tends to make coercive strategies less effective. On the contrary, as they note, asymmetric network structures, such as global financial platforms that flow through the US, “create a condition of ‘weaponized interdependence’ in which some states are able to leverage interdependent relations to coerce others”. Due to its dominant position in global economic networks, the US has not experienced asymmetric dependence on trade with Europe as an obstacle to imposing its coercive strategy.”
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